Worldwide Nanotechnology Electric Vehicle (Ev) Market Shares Strategies, And Forecasts, 2009 To 2015

 Electric vehicles are real. They come in a variety of styles and capabilities. The BMW features driving control and style. The Chinese BYD hybrid backed by Warren Buffet’s company has features that enable plug-in hybrid power train flexibility. It has a full battery-powered electric mode. The series-hybrid mode has an engine which drives a generator to recharge the batteries, acting as a rangeextender. There is a parallel hybrid mode, in which the engine and motor both provide propulsive power.

Electric vehicles represent a quantum shift in transportation. The design trajectories are varied; the opportunities are significant as a quantum shift occurs in what the vehicle basic functions are and how the vehicle works. The car companies that leverage the market opportunity to shift to a new paradyne are likely to succeed. There are others who merely try to migrate existing styles and designs to electric vehicles. Buggy whips come to mind.

The ability to plug a car into a hardened backyard set of batteries charged from a solar panel provides relief from gasoline spending. To have a second car, powered by a battery pack promises to provide growth of a new industry. The banks can loan against the car and the solar panel. Solar panels are evolving modular capability where they can be quickly installed and provide electricity for the car.

Investment in electric vehicle infrastructure is a priority. With countries seeking to invest in infrastructure that will provide economic growth, it is clear that special infrastructure for electric vehicles will stimulate growth from the private sector. Electric vehicle market segment is positioned for growth for vehicles used for local driving.

Worldwide nanotechnology thin film lithium-ion batteries are poised to achieve significant growth as units become more able to achieve deliver of power to electric vehicles efficiently. Less expensive lithium-ion batteries allow leveraging economies of scale and proliferation of devices into a wide range of applications. According to Susan Eustis, lead author of the study, “Economies of scale leverage the lithium-ion battery nanotechnology advances needed to make lithium-ion batteries competitive. Nanotechnology provided by lithium-ion research solves the issues poised by the need to store renewable energy. Lithium-ion batteries switch price reductions are poised to drive market adoption by making units affordable.”

Nanotechnology results obtained in the laboratory are being translated into commercial products. The processes of translating the nanotechnology science into thin film lithium ion batteries are anticipated to be ongoing. The breakthroughs of science in the laboratory have only begun to be translated into life outside the lab, with a long way to go in improving the functioning of the lithium-ion batteries.

Unlike any other battery technology, thin film solid-state batteries show very high cycle life. Using very thin cathodes (0.05µm) batteries have been cycled in excess of 45,000 cycles with very limited loss in capacity. After 45,000 cycles, 95% of the original capacity remained.

Markets for electric vehicles at 685 units in 2008 are anticipated to reach 32.7 million autos shipped by 2015, growing in response to demand for a renewable energy powered vehicle that lowers the total cost of ownership by a significant amount. Lithium-ion batteries used in cell phones and PCs, and in cordless power tools are proving the technology to power electric vehicles. Early electric vehicles are being used as city cars, proving the feasibility of electric cars. Think in Norway has a viable manufacturing operation and 1,000 cars on the road. The large emerging markets are for hybrid and electric vehicles powered by renewable energy systems.

Table of Contents :
Figure ES-1
Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure ES-2

REVA Electric Car

Table ES-3

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table ES-3 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure ES-4

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Figure ES-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of

Automotive and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Figure ES-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table ES-7

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-7 (Continued)

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-8

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

1. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET DESCRIPTION AND MARKET DYNAMICS
1.1 Auto Industry

1.1.1 Electric Vehicle Economic Forces

1.1.2 Cars Represent 20% Of The US Economic Retail Spending

1.1.3 Electric Vehicle Design Trajectories

1.2 Electric Vehicle EVs

1.2.1 EVs Cost Effective In City Conditions

1.2.2 Lithium-Ion Car Batteries

1.2.3 Private-Public Partnerships

1.3 Lithium-Ion Battery Target Markets

1.3.1 Project Better Place and the Renault-Nissan Alliance

1.3.2 Largest Target Market, The Transportation Industry

1.3.3 Electric Grid Services Market

1.3.4 Portable Power Market, Power Tools

1.4 Lithium-Ion Battery Technologies Transportation Industry Target Market

1.5 Energy Storage For Grid Stabilization

1.5.1 Local Energy Storage Benefit For Utilities

1.6 Applications Require On-Printed Circuit Board Battery Power

1.6.1 Thin-film vs. Printed Batteries

1.7 Smart Buildings

1.7.1 Permanent Power for Wireless Sensors

1.8 Battery Safety / Potential Hazards

1.9 Thin Film Solid-State Battery Construction

1.10 Battery Is Electrochemical Device

1.11 Battery Depends On Chemical Energy

1.11.1 Characteristics Of Battery Cells

1.11.2 Batteries Are Designed Differently For Various Applications

2. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS
2.1 Electric Vehicle Economic Market Driving Forces

2.1.1 Nanotechnology Forms the Base for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.1.2 Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.2 Electric Vehicle Market Shares

2.2.1 Daimler Safety Cell

2.2.2 Daimler Smart Car

2.2.3 BYD

2.2.4 Think Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

2.2.5 TH!NK City Safety Concept

2.2.6 Think Overnight Power Top-Up

2.2.7 GM Volt

2.2.8 GM Opel

2.2.9 Tesla Motors

2.2.10 i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi

2.2.11 Mitsubishi

2.2.12 Subaru Selling EVs In Japan In 2009

2.2.13 BMW

2.2.14 REVA Electric Car

2.2.15 Ford Advances Electric Vehicle Technology

2.2.16 Ford Partnership With Utility Industry

2.2.17 Toyota Hybrid Prius

2.2.18 Nissan

2.2.19 Phoenix Motorcars

2.2.20 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

2.2.21 Chrysler

2.3 Electric Vehicles Market Forecasts

2.4 Electric Vehicle Battery Recharging

2.4.1 Changing Electric Vehicles On The Fly

2.5 2008 / 2009 Auto Sales Overview

2.5.1 Korean Cars Succeed In US

2.5.2 Total Vehicles Sold / GM Profile

2.5.3 GM Global Vehicle Sales and Market Share – 2007

2.5.4 Worldwide Automotive Sales For 2007

2.5.5 Deepening Slowdown

2.6 Electric Vehicles As A Very Fancy Golf Cart

2.7 Worldwide Nanotechnology Thin Film Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

2.7.1 Market Driving Forces

2.7.2 Nanotechnology Forms the Base for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.7.3 Competitors

2.8 Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares

2.8.1 ExxonMobil Affiliate in Japan / Tonen Chemical

2.8.2 A123Systems Patent for Nanophosphate™ Lithium Ion Battery Technology

2.9 Lithium-Ion Battery Market Forecasts

2.10 Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares

2.10.1 BYD

2.10.2 Johnson Controls-Saft

2.10.3 Saft Battery Technologies

2.10.4 A123Systems 32 Series Automotive Class Lithium Ion™ Cells:

2.10.5 NEC and Nissen

2.10.6 LG Chem

2.10.7 EnerDel

2.10.8 Competition

2.11 Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Market Forecasts

2.11.1 Largest Target Market, The Transportation Industry Thin Film Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery EV Market Thin Film Lithium-Ion And Lithium Polymer Automotive Batteries

3. ELECTRIC VEHICLE PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
3.1 BMW

3.1.1 BMW Second Version Of The Electric Mini

3.2 BYD / MidAmerican Energy Holdings

3.2.1 Warren Buffet – MidAmerican, A Collection Of Electric Utilities In The Midwest

3.2.2 BYD Plug-in Hybrid Power Train Flexibility

3.2.3 BYD E6 Electric Car and F6

3.2.4 BYD E6 Electric Vehicle Specifications

3.3 Tesla Motors

3.3.1 Electric Roadster by Tesla Motors

3.3.2 Tesla Motors Next Generation Model S

3.3.3 Telsa Battery Pack And Frame

3.4 Daimler AG

3.4.1 Daimler Smart Car Model Features

3.4.2 Electric Car by Daimler Mercedes (2010)

3.5 Think

3.5.1 A123Systems / GE Production Contract for Norwegian Think Electric Vehicles

3.5.2 Think Overnight Power Top-Up

3.5.3 TH!NK City Safety Concept

3.5.4 TH!NK City Environmentally Friendly

3.5.5 Thinking Globally

3.6 General Motors

3.6.1 GM Volt

3.6.2 GM Challenge to Battery Developers

3.6.3 GM and A123Systems Co-Develop Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for Chevrolet Volt

3.6.4 GM Cadillac Electric Vehicle

3.6.5 GM / Opel

3.6.6 GM Chevrolet Equinox Fuel-Cell Vehicles

3.7 Miles XS500 Electric Car

3.8 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car to be Sold 1 Year Ahead of Schedule in Japan

3.8.1 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car Specifications

3.8.2 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car Pricing

3.8.3 i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi

3.8.4 Mitsubishi Electric Car i MiEV Coming to Europe

3.8.5 Mitsubishi Electric Car i MiEV Production Plans

3.8.6 i MiEV Electric Car Specifications

3.8.7 i MiEV Electric Car to be Sold 1 Year Ahead of Schedule

3.9 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru R1e Electric Car Source: Subaru.

3.9.1 Subaru Selling EVs In Japan In 2009

3.9.2 Subaru G4e Source: Subaru.

3.9.3 NEC / Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

3.9.4 NEC / Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru Thin Film Battery Flat Shape

3.10 Electric Supercar by Hybrid Technologies

3.11 Electric Mini by PML

3.12 Electric Car by Nissan (2010-2012)

3.12.1 NEC / Nissan Low-Cost Lithium-Manganese Batteries

3.13 REVA Electric Car

3.14 Zenn Low Speed Electric Car

3.15 Commuter Cars Tango Electric Car

3.16 Eliica Electric Car by KEIO University

3.17 Wrightspeed X1 Electric Car

3.18 Saturn SP1 Electric Car Conversion by Students of Napoleon High School

3.19 Toyota Hybrid Prius

3.19.1 Toyota iQ Microcar

3.19.2 Toyota FT-EV Battery Electric Vehicle

3.20 Ford

3.21 Chrysler

3.21.1 Chrysler Town & Country EV

3.21.2 Chrysler Personal Mobility Revolution

3.21.3 Chrysler Dodge Circuit EV

3.21.4 Chrysler Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV

3.22 Phoenix

3.23 Shelby Supercars

3.24 Aptera

4. ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
4.1 Phoenix Motorcars Altairnano Lithium Titanate Battery Technology

4.1.1 Altairnano Battery Comparison

4.1.2 Lead-Acid Battery Technology

4.1.3 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

4.1.4 Lithium-Ion

4.2 Globalization Model For Electric Cars

4.2.1 Better Place Electric Vehicle Network

4.2.2 Better Place has partnered with AGL Energy in Australia

4.3 EFOY Pro Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Charging Kit

4.3.1 Smart Fuel Cells SFC

4.3.2 Citycom AG’s CityEL

4.4 Vendor Lithium-ion Battery Strategy

4.4.1 Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Characteristics

4.5 Challenges in Battery Design

4.5.1 Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries Requirements

4.6 Vendor Lithium-Ion Battery Positioning

4.6.1 High-Quality, Volume Manufacturing Facilities

4.7 Applications Of Lithium-Ion Batteries

4.8 Mobile Phone Industry

4.8.1 Nanowires

4.8.2 Thin Film Battery Enabling Chemistries

4.8.3 The Cathodes

4.8.4 Solid State Devices Provide More Energy Density

4.9 Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

4.9.1 Lithium-Ion Battery Shortcomings

4.9.2 Charging

4.9.3 Applications

4.9.4 Costs

4.10 Lithium Cell Chemistry Variants

4.10.1 Lithium-ion

4.10.2 Lithium-ion Polymer

4.10.3 Other Lithium Cathode Chemistry Variants

4.10.4 Lithium Cobalt LiCoO2

4.10.5 Lithium Manganese LiMn2O4

4.10.6 Lithium Nickel LiNiO2

4.10.7 Lithium (NCM) Nickel Cobal Manganese – Li(NiCoMn)O2

4.10.8 Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4

4.11 Operating Performance Of The Cell Can Be Tuned

4.12 Lithium Metal Polymer

4.12.1 Lithium Sulphur Li2S8

4.12.2 Alternative Anode Chemistry

4.13 ExxonMobil affiliate, Tonen Chemical Polyethylene-Based, Porous Film

4.14 Cymbet Alternate Manufacturing

4.15 Thin-Film Batteries Packaging

4.16 ITN Energy Systems Fibrous Substrates, PowerFiber

4.16.1 ITN Sensors

4.17 Cell Construction

4.18 Impact Of Nanotechnology

4.19 Thin Film Batteries

4.19.1 Thin Film Battery Timescales and Costs

4.19.2 High Power And Energy Density

4.19.3 High Rate Capability

4.20 Comparison Of Rechargeable Battery Performance

4.21 Polymer Film Substrate

4.22 Micro Battery Solid Electrolyte

5. ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY PROFILES

5.1 A123 Systems

5.1.1 A123 Systems Revenue

5.1.2 A123Systems Registration Statement for Initial Public Offering

5.1.3 A123 Systems Batteries Benefits

5.1.4 A123 Systems Competitive Advantage

5.1.5 A123 Systems Strategy

5.1.6 A123Systems and GE

5.1.7 A123 Acquisition of Hymotion

5.1.8 Procter & Gamble Duracell and A123 Systems Collaborate

5.1.9 Cobasys and A123 Systems

5.2 Aperta

5.3 Better Place Model

5.4 BMW

5.5 BYD

5.5.1 Warren Buffett Buys 10 Percent Stake In BYD Chinese Battery Manufacturer

5.6 E-One Moli Energy Group

5.7 Ener1

5.7.1 Ener1 Third Quarter 2008 Revenue

5.7.2 Ener1 Positioning Technology Originally Pioneered By Argonne National Lab

5.7.3 Ener1 Acquires Enertech Leading Korean Lithium-ion Battery Cell Producer

5.7.4 Ener1 / Enertech Specializes In Producing Large Format Flat (“Prismatic”) Cells

5.7.5 EnerDel Operations

5.8 Ford

5.8.1 Ford Electric Vehicle Positioning

5.8.2 Ford’s Comprehensive Sustainability Strategy

5.8.3 Ford Partnership With Southern California Edison Electric Utility

5.8.4 Ford Partnership with Johnson Controls-Saft for Thin Film Batteries

5.8.5 Ford Partnership with Utility Industry

5.8.6 Building A Business Case

5.8.7 Governments Of Japan, China, Korea, And India Significantly Funding EV Research

5.8.8 Ford Energy Future Vision

5.9 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

5.9.1 Subaru of America

5.9.2 Subaru of America Revenue 2008

5.10 General Motors

5.10.1 General Motors Factory In Michigan To Build Battery Packs

5.10.2 GM 2008 Global Sales of 8.35 Million Vehicles

5.10.3 GM Continues Growth in Emerging Markets

5.10.4 GM’s North America Regional Performance

5.10.5 GM Europe

5.10.6 GM Strongly Believes In The Electrification Of The Automobile

5.11 Miles Electric Vehicles

5.11.1 Miles Zero Emissions, Full Electric Car

5.12 Johnson Controls-Saft

5.13 LG Petrochemical

5.13.1 LG Chem

5.14 Mitsubishi

5.14.1 Fleet Testing Of The Zero-Emissions iMiev Electric Vehicle

5.15 NEC / Nissan Low-Cost Lithium-Manganese Batteries

5.15.1 NEC Lamilion Energy

5.16 Panasonic / Sanyo

5.17 Phoenix Motorcars

5.17.1 Phoenix Motorcars Customers: Maui Electric

5.17.2 Phoenix MC All-Electric, Light-Duty Trucks

5.18 REVA

5.18.1 REVA Car Features

5.18.2 REVA Globally Tested Product

5.19 Saft

5.19.1 Saft Battery Technologies

5.19.2 Saft Industrial Battery Group (IBG)

5.19.3 Saft Specialty Battery Group (SBG)

5.19.4 Saft Rechargeable Battery Systems (RBS)

5.19.5 Saft Research and Development

5.19.6 Johnson Controls-Saft United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)

5.20 Samsung

5.21 Shelby SuperCars

5.21.1 Sheffield International Finance Corporation

5.21.2 SSC Monthly Newsletter

5.22 Tesla Motors

5.22.1 Tesla Battery Packs

5.22.2 Tesla Roadster

5.22.3 Tesla Restructuring

5.23 Think

5.23.1 Think Manufacturing Capacity

5.23.2 Think Employees Called Back From Lay-Off

5.23.3 Think Confirms Interim Financing – Private Equity Firm Ener1 Group Is The Lead Investor

5.23.4 Kleiner Perkins And Rockport Capital, Two Leading Us Cleantech Investors Launch Joint Venture With Norwegian Electrical Vehicle Company Think

5.23.5 TH!NK city Crash-Tested And Highway-Certified EV

5.23.6 Think Strategic Partnership With Energy Giant General Electric

5.23.7 Think collaboration with Porsche Consulting

5.24 Toyota

5.25 ZENN Motor Company

5.25.1 Zenn Motor Strategic Energy Storage Partner, Eestor

List of Tables and Figures
Figure ES-1

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure ES-2

REVA Electric Car

Table ES-3

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table ES-3 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure ES-4

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Figure ES-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of

Automotive and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Figure ES-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table ES-7

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-7 (Continued)

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-8

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

Table 1-1

Principal Features Used To Compare Rechargeable Batteries

Figure 1-2

BMW’s Mini E Electric Car Powered By A Rechargeable

Lithium-Ion Battery

Table 1-3

Examples of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Figure 1-4

Typical Structure Of A Thin Film Solid State Battery

Table 1-5

Characteristics Of Battery Cells

Table 2-1

Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

Table 2-2

Energy Advantages Of Thin-Film Batteries

Figure 2-3

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Table 2-4

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table 2-4 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure 2-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Table 2-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Shipments Market Shares,

Units On the Road

2009 11

Figure 2-7

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Red

Figure 2-8

REVA Electric Car

Figure 2-9

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of Automotive

and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Table 2-10

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts and

Penetration Analysis, 2009-2015

Figure 2-11

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table 2-12

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts and

Penetration Analysis, 2009-2015

Table 2-13

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts, Penetration Analysis,

2009-2015

Table 2-14

Worldwide Automotive and Light Truck Small

Size Electric Vehicle (EV) Market Forecasts, Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-15

Worldwide Small Electric Vehicle (EV) Market

Forecasts, Units, 2009-2015

Table 2-16

Worldwide Small Car and Small Light Truck Electric

Vehicle (EV) Automotive Market Retail Forecasts,

Units and Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-17

Worldwide Sedan Size Automotive and Light Truck

Electric Vehicle (EV) Retail Market Forecasts, Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-18

Worldwide Sedan Size Automotive and Light Truck

Electric Vehicle (EV) Shipments Retail Market Forecasts, Units,

2009-2015

Table 2-19

Worldwide Sedan Size Car and Light Truck Electric

Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments and Automotive Market

Retail Forecasts, Units and Dollars, 2009-201

Table 2-20

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table 2-21

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

Table 2-22

Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

Table 2-23

Energy Advantages Of Thin-Film Batteries

Figure 2-24

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Table 2-25

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-26

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-27

Worldwide Lithium-Ion and Advanced Lithium-ion

Battery Market Forecasts, Automotive, Power Tools,

Electric Grid, and PC Card, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-28

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Automotive Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-29

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Automotive Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-30

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-31

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Units, 2009-2015

Figure 2-32

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Units and Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-33

Commercialization Challenges Of The Automotive,

Truck, and Bus Thin Film Battery Industry

Table 2-34

Integrated Thin Film Battery Personal Transport Power Systems

Figure 3-1

BMW’S Mini E Electric Car Powered By A Rechargeable

Lithium-Ion Battery

Figure 3-2

BYD E6 Electric Car

Figure 3-3

BYD F3DM Front View

Figure 3-4

BYD F3DM Rear View

Figure 3-5

BYD F3 Moon Roof

Table 3-6

BYD Plug-in Hybrid Powertrain Flexibility

Figure 3-7

BYD E6 Electric Car

Figure 3-8

BYD F6

Figure 3-9

Tesla Motors Roadster

Figure 3-10

Tesla Motors Roadster Torque and Power Graph

Figure 3-11

Model S by Tesla Motors

Figure 3-12

Daimler AG Smart car

Figure 3-13

Daimler Smart Car

Figure 3-14

Daimler Electric Mercedes

Figure 3-15

Prince Albert of Monaco Driving TH!NK city

Figure 3-16

Driving TH!NK city

Figure 3-17

Think Driver Console

Figure 3-18

Think Open

Figure 3-19

Think OX

Figure 3-20

Think City Electric Vehicle

Table 3-21

TH!NK City Specifications

Table 3-22

Think City Standard Equipment:

Table 3-22 (Continued)

Think City Standard Equipment:

Table 3-23

TH!NK City Features

Figure 3-24

Think Lineup of Electric Cars

Figure 3-25

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Front View

Figure 3-26

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Angle View

Figure 3-27

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Rear View

Figure 3-28

General Motors Chevrolet Volt

Figure 3-29

GM Cadillac Electric Vehicle

Figure 3-30

General Motors EV1 Electric Car

Figure 3-31

XS500 Electric Car by Miles

Figure 3-32

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – In Traffic

Figure 3-33

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Battery Packaging

Figure 3-34

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Red

Figure 3-35

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Gray

Figure 3-36

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Interior

Figure 3-37

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Features

Figure 3-38

Mitsubishi I Miev Electric Car

Figure 3-39

Mitsubishi I Miev Electric Car Interior Engine and

Drive Train Layout

Figure 3-40

Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru R1e Electric Car

Figure 3-41

Subaru R1e Electric Car Plug Station

Figure 3-42

Subaru G4e Electric Car

Figure 3-43

Hybrid Technologies Electric Supercar

Figure 3-44

Electric Mini by PML

Figure 3-45

Test Electric Car by Nissan

Figure 3-46

REVA Electric Car

Figure 3-47

Zenn Auto

Figure 3-48

Zenn Electric Auto Close-up

Figure 3-49

Zenn Auto Parked in Street

Figure 3-50

Zenn Electric Auto – Gray with Sun Roof

Figure 3-51

Commuter Cars Tango Electric Car

Figure 3-52

Commuter Cars Tango in Washington DC

Figure 3-53

Eliica Electric Car

Figure 3-54

Wrightspeed X1 Electric Car

Figure 3-55

Saturn SP1 Electric Car Conversion

Figure 3-56

Toyota Hybrid Prius

Figure 3-57

Toyota FT-EV Battery Electric Vehicle

Figure 3-58

Toyota Electric Car

Table 3-59

Chrysler ENVI Electric Minivan Features

Figure 3-60

Interior of The Concept Car, The Chrysler 200C EV

Table 3-61

Chrysler Electric Vehicle Positioning

Table 3-62

Chrysler Electric Vehicle EV

Figure 3-63

Chrysler Electric Vehicles

Figure 3-64

Dodge Circuit EV

Table 3-65

Dodge Circuit EV Features

Figure 3-66

Chrysler Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV

Figure 3-67

Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV Features

Figure 3-68

Phoenix Motorcars SUT Truck

Figure 3-69

Phoenix Motorcars SUV Vehicle

Figure 3-70

Shelby Supercars

Figure 3-71

Shelby Supercars – Doors Raised

Figure 3-72

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure 3-73

Aptera 2e Pre-Production Models

Figure 3-74

Aperta Three Wheel Vehicle

Figure 3-75

Aperta Three Wheel Vehicle – Rear View

Figure 4-1

Altairnano Battery Performance:

Figure 4-2

EFOY Pro Fuel Cell Kit For Electric Vehicles

Figure 4-3

Electrica City Car – Red

Figure 4-4

Electrica City Car – Yellow

Figure 4-5

Electrica City Car – Open

Figure 4-6

Electrica City Car – Dashboard

Figure 4-7

Smart Fuel Cells (SFC) Supply The StartLab Open With Power

Table 4-8

Challenges in Lithium-ion Battery Design

Table 4-9

Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Source: ITN.

Table 4-10

Thin Film Battery Unique Properties

Table 4-11

Comparison of battery performances

Table 4-12

Comparison Of Battery Performances

Table 4-13

Thin Films For Advanced Batteries

Table 4-14

Thin Film Batteries Technology

Table 4-15

Thin Film Battery / Lithium Air Batteries Applications

Figure 4-16

Polymer Film Substrate Thin Flexible Battery Profiles

Figure 4-17

Design Alternatives of Thin Film Rechargable Batteries

Table 5-1

A123 Systems Batteries Benefits

Table 5-2

A123 Systems Competitive Positioning

Table 5-2 (Continued)

A123 Systems Competitive Positioning

Table 5-2 (Continued)

A123 Systems Competitive Positioning

Figure 5-3

Aptera Vehicle Early Drawings

Figure 5-4

Assembly Facility: Vista, CA

Figure 5-5

Aperta Composite Facility: Carlsbad, CA

Figure 5-6

EnerDel Operations

Figure 5-7

EnerDel Lithium Power Systems

Figure 5-8

EnerDel Lithium Power USABC Contracts

Figure 5-9

EnerDel Lithium Power Think Projct

Table 5-10

Ford Key Government Energy Actions Recommendations

Figure 5-11

Sanyo Battery Targets 2020

Figure 5-12

REVA Electric Car

Figure 5-13

Saft Revenue H1 2008

Figure 5-14

Shelby Supercars

Figure 5-15

Think Auto Production Facility

Figure 5-16

TH!NK North America

Figure 5-17

Toyota Consolidated Vehicle Sales

Figure 5-18

Toyota Strategy

Figure 5-19

Toyota Car

 

Breakthrough technology in electric vehicles brings advancements that provide customers with personal transportation choices never before available. Electric vehicles are real. They come in a variety of styles and capabilities. The BMW features driving control and style. The Chinese BYD hybrid backed by Warren Buffet’s company has features that enable plug-in hybrid power train flexibility. It has a full battery-powered electric mode. The series-hybrid mode has an engine which drives a generator to recharge the batteries, acting as a rangeextender. There is a parallel hybrid mode, in which the engine and motor both provide propulsive power.

Electric vehicles represent a quantum shift in transportation. The design trajectories are varied; the opportunities are significant as a quantum shift occurs in what the vehicle basic functions are and how the vehicle works. The car companies that leverage the market opportunity to shift to a new paradyne are likely to succeed. There are others who merely try to migrate existing styles and designs to electric vehicles. Buggy whips come to mind.

The ability to plug a car into a hardened backyard set of batteries charged from a solar panel provides relief from gasoline spending. To have a second car, powered by a battery pack promises to provide growth of a new industry. The banks can loan against the car and the solar panel. Solar panels are evolving modular capability where they can be quickly installed and provide electricity for the car.

Investment in electric vehicle infrastructure is a priority. With countries seeking to invest in infrastructure that will provide economic growth, it is clear that special infrastructure for electric vehicles will stimulate growth from the private sector. Electric vehicle market segment is positioned for growth for vehicles used for local driving.

Worldwide nanotechnology thin film lithium-ion batteries are poised to achieve significant growth as units become more able to achieve deliver of power to electric vehicles efficiently. Less expensive lithium-ion batteries allow leveraging economies of scale and proliferation of devices into a wide range of applications. According to Susan Eustis, lead author of the study, “Economies of scale leverage the lithium-ion battery nanotechnology advances needed to make lithium-ion batteries competitive. Nanotechnology provided by lithium-ion research solves the issues poised by the need to store renewable energy. Lithium-ion batteries switch price reductions are poised to drive market adoption by making units affordable.”

Nanotechnology results obtained in the laboratory are being translated into commercial products. The processes of translating the nanotechnology science into thin film lithium ion batteries are anticipated to be ongoing. The breakthroughs of science in the laboratory have only begun to be translated into life outside the lab, with a long way to go in improving the functioning of the lithium-ion batteries.

Unlike any other battery technology, thin film solid-state batteries show very high cycle life. Using very thin cathodes (0.05µm) batteries have been cycled in excess of 45,000 cycles with very limited loss in capacity. After 45,000 cycles, 95% of the original capacity remained.

Markets for electric vehicles at 685 units in 2008 are anticipated to reach 32.7 million autos shipped by 2015, growing in response to demand for a renewable energy powered vehicle that lowers the total cost of ownership by a significant amount. Lithium-ion batteries used in cell phones and PCs, and in cordless power tools are proving the technology to power electric vehicles. Early electric vehicles are being used as city cars, proving the feasibility of electric cars. Think in Norway has a viable manufacturing operation and 1,000 cars on the road. The large emerging markets are for hybrid and electric vehicles powered by renewable energy systems.

Table of Contents :
Figure ES-1
Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure ES-2

REVA Electric Car

Table ES-3

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table ES-3 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure ES-4

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Figure ES-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of

Automotive and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Figure ES-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table ES-7

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-7 (Continued)

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-8

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

1. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET DESCRIPTION AND MARKET DYNAMICS
1.1 Auto Industry

1.1.1 Electric Vehicle Economic Forces

1.1.2 Cars Represent 20% Of The US Economic Retail Spending

1.1.3 Electric Vehicle Design Trajectories

1.2 Electric Vehicle EVs

1.2.1 EVs Cost Effective In City Conditions

1.2.2 Lithium-Ion Car Batteries

1.2.3 Private-Public Partnerships

1.3 Lithium-Ion Battery Target Markets

1.3.1 Project Better Place and the Renault-Nissan Alliance

1.3.2 Largest Target Market, The Transportation Industry

1.3.3 Electric Grid Services Market

1.3.4 Portable Power Market, Power Tools

1.4 Lithium-Ion Battery Technologies Transportation Industry Target Market

1.5 Energy Storage For Grid Stabilization

1.5.1 Local Energy Storage Benefit For Utilities

1.6 Applications Require On-Printed Circuit Board Battery Power

1.6.1 Thin-film vs. Printed Batteries

1.7 Smart Buildings

1.7.1 Permanent Power for Wireless Sensors

1.8 Battery Safety / Potential Hazards

1.9 Thin Film Solid-State Battery Construction

1.10 Battery Is Electrochemical Device

1.11 Battery Depends On Chemical Energy

1.11.1 Characteristics Of Battery Cells

1.11.2 Batteries Are Designed Differently For Various Applications

2. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS
2.1 Electric Vehicle Economic Market Driving Forces

2.1.1 Nanotechnology Forms the Base for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.1.2 Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.2 Electric Vehicle Market Shares

2.2.1 Daimler Safety Cell

2.2.2 Daimler Smart Car

2.2.3 BYD

2.2.4 Think Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

2.2.5 TH!NK City Safety Concept

2.2.6 Think Overnight Power Top-Up

2.2.7 GM Volt

2.2.8 GM Opel

2.2.9 Tesla Motors

2.2.10 i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi

2.2.11 Mitsubishi

2.2.12 Subaru Selling EVs In Japan In 2009

2.2.13 BMW

2.2.14 REVA Electric Car

2.2.15 Ford Advances Electric Vehicle Technology

2.2.16 Ford Partnership With Utility Industry

2.2.17 Toyota Hybrid Prius

2.2.18 Nissan

2.2.19 Phoenix Motorcars

2.2.20 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

2.2.21 Chrysler

2.3 Electric Vehicles Market Forecasts

2.4 Electric Vehicle Battery Recharging

2.4.1 Changing Electric Vehicles On The Fly

2.5 2008 / 2009 Auto Sales Overview

2.5.1 Korean Cars Succeed In US

2.5.2 Total Vehicles Sold / GM Profile

2.5.3 GM Global Vehicle Sales and Market Share – 2007

2.5.4 Worldwide Automotive Sales For 2007

2.5.5 Deepening Slowdown

2.6 Electric Vehicles As A Very Fancy Golf Cart

2.7 Worldwide Nanotechnology Thin Film Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

2.7.1 Market Driving Forces

2.7.2 Nanotechnology Forms the Base for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.7.3 Competitors

2.8 Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares

2.8.1 ExxonMobil Affiliate in Japan / Tonen Chemical

2.8.2 A123Systems Patent for Nanophosphate™ Lithium Ion Battery Technology

2.9 Lithium-Ion Battery Market Forecasts

2.10 Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares

2.10.1 BYD

2.10.2 Johnson Controls-Saft

2.10.3 Saft Battery Technologies

2.10.4 A123Systems 32 Series Automotive Class Lithium Ion™ Cells:

2.10.5 NEC and Nissen

2.10.6 LG Chem

2.10.7 EnerDel

2.10.8 Competition

2.11 Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Market Forecasts

2.11.1 Largest Target Market, The Transportation Industry Thin Film Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery EV Market Thin Film Lithium-Ion And Lithium Polymer Automotive Batteries

3. ELECTRIC VEHICLE PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
3.1 BMW

3.1.1 BMW Second Version Of The Electric Mini

3.2 BYD / MidAmerican Energy Holdings

3.2.1 Warren Buffet – MidAmerican, A Collection Of Electric Utilities In The Midwest

3.2.2 BYD Plug-in Hybrid Power Train Flexibility

3.2.3 BYD E6 Electric Car and F6

3.2.4 BYD E6 Electric Vehicle Specifications

3.3 Tesla Motors

3.3.1 Electric Roadster by Tesla Motors

3.3.2 Tesla Motors Next Generation Model S

3.3.3 Telsa Battery Pack And Frame

3.4 Daimler AG

3.4.1 Daimler Smart Car Model Features

3.4.2 Electric Car by Daimler Mercedes (2010)

3.5 Think

3.5.1 A123Systems / GE Production Contract for Norwegian Think Electric Vehicles

3.5.2 Think Overnight Power Top-Up

3.5.3 TH!NK City Safety Concept

3.5.4 TH!NK City Environmentally Friendly

3.5.5 Thinking Globally

3.6 General Motors

3.6.1 GM Volt

3.6.2 GM Challenge to Battery Developers

3.6.3 GM and A123Systems Co-Develop Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for Chevrolet Volt

3.6.4 GM Cadillac Electric Vehicle

3.6.5 GM / Opel

3.6.6 GM Chevrolet Equinox Fuel-Cell Vehicles

3.7 Miles XS500 Electric Car

3.8 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car to be Sold 1 Year Ahead of Schedule in Japan

3.8.1 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car Specifications

3.8.2 Mitsubishi i MiEV Electric Car Pricing

3.8.3 i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi

3.8.4 Mitsubishi Electric Car i MiEV Coming to Europe

3.8.5 Mitsubishi Electric Car i MiEV Production Plans

3.8.6 i MiEV Electric Car Specifications

3.8.7 i MiEV Electric Car to be Sold 1 Year Ahead of Schedule

3.9 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru R1e Electric Car Source: Subaru.

3.9.1 Subaru Selling EVs In Japan In 2009

3.9.2 Subaru G4e Source: Subaru.

3.9.3 NEC / Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

3.9.4 NEC / Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru Thin Film Battery Flat Shape

3.10 Electric Supercar by Hybrid Technologies

3.11 Electric Mini by PML

3.12 Electric Car by Nissan (2010-2012)

3.12.1 NEC / Nissan Low-Cost Lithium-Manganese Batteries

3.13 REVA Electric Car

3.14 Zenn Low Speed Electric Car

3.15 Commuter Cars Tango Electric Car

3.16 Eliica Electric Car by KEIO University

3.17 Wrightspeed X1 Electric Car

3.18 Saturn SP1 Electric Car Conversion by Students of Napoleon High School

3.19 Toyota Hybrid Prius

3.19.1 Toyota iQ Microcar

3.19.2 Toyota FT-EV Battery Electric Vehicle

3.20 Ford

3.21 Chrysler

3.21.1 Chrysler Town & Country EV

3.21.2 Chrysler Personal Mobility Revolution

3.21.3 Chrysler Dodge Circuit EV

3.21.4 Chrysler Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV

3.22 Phoenix

3.23 Shelby Supercars

3.24 Aptera

4. ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
4.1 Phoenix Motorcars Altairnano Lithium Titanate Battery Technology

4.1.1 Altairnano Battery Comparison

4.1.2 Lead-Acid Battery Technology

4.1.3 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

4.1.4 Lithium-Ion

4.2 Globalization Model For Electric Cars

4.2.1 Better Place Electric Vehicle Network

4.2.2 Better Place has partnered with AGL Energy in Australia

4.3 EFOY Pro Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Charging Kit

4.3.1 Smart Fuel Cells SFC

4.3.2 Citycom AG’s CityEL

4.4 Vendor Lithium-ion Battery Strategy

4.4.1 Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Characteristics

4.5 Challenges in Battery Design

4.5.1 Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries Requirements

4.6 Vendor Lithium-Ion Battery Positioning

4.6.1 High-Quality, Volume Manufacturing Facilities

4.7 Applications Of Lithium-Ion Batteries

4.8 Mobile Phone Industry

4.8.1 Nanowires

4.8.2 Thin Film Battery Enabling Chemistries

4.8.3 The Cathodes

4.8.4 Solid State Devices Provide More Energy Density

4.9 Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

4.9.1 Lithium-Ion Battery Shortcomings

4.9.2 Charging

4.9.3 Applications

4.9.4 Costs

4.10 Lithium Cell Chemistry Variants

4.10.1 Lithium-ion

4.10.2 Lithium-ion Polymer

4.10.3 Other Lithium Cathode Chemistry Variants

4.10.4 Lithium Cobalt LiCoO2

4.10.5 Lithium Manganese LiMn2O4

4.10.6 Lithium Nickel LiNiO2

4.10.7 Lithium (NCM) Nickel Cobal Manganese – Li(NiCoMn)O2

4.10.8 Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4

4.11 Operating Performance Of The Cell Can Be Tuned

4.12 Lithium Metal Polymer

4.12.1 Lithium Sulphur Li2S8

4.12.2 Alternative Anode Chemistry

4.13 ExxonMobil affiliate, Tonen Chemical Polyethylene-Based, Porous Film

4.14 Cymbet Alternate Manufacturing

4.15 Thin-Film Batteries Packaging

4.16 ITN Energy Systems Fibrous Substrates, PowerFiber

4.16.1 ITN Sensors

4.17 Cell Construction

4.18 Impact Of Nanotechnology

4.19 Thin Film Batteries

4.19.1 Thin Film Battery Timescales and Costs

4.19.2 High Power And Energy Density

4.19.3 High Rate Capability

4.20 Comparison Of Rechargeable Battery Performance

4.21 Polymer Film Substrate

4.22 Micro Battery Solid Electrolyte

5. ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY PROFILES

5.1 A123 Systems

5.1.1 A123 Systems Revenue

5.1.2 A123Systems Registration Statement for Initial Public Offering

5.1.3 A123 Systems Batteries Benefits

5.1.4 A123 Systems Competitive Advantage

5.1.5 A123 Systems Strategy

5.1.6 A123Systems and GE

5.1.7 A123 Acquisition of Hymotion

5.1.8 Procter & Gamble Duracell and A123 Systems Collaborate

5.1.9 Cobasys and A123 Systems

5.2 Aperta

5.3 Better Place Model

5.4 BMW

5.5 BYD

5.5.1 Warren Buffett Buys 10 Percent Stake In BYD Chinese Battery Manufacturer

5.6 E-One Moli Energy Group

5.7 Ener1

5.7.1 Ener1 Third Quarter 2008 Revenue

5.7.2 Ener1 Positioning Technology Originally Pioneered By Argonne National Lab

5.7.3 Ener1 Acquires Enertech Leading Korean Lithium-ion Battery Cell Producer

5.7.4 Ener1 / Enertech Specializes In Producing Large Format Flat (“Prismatic”) Cells

5.7.5 EnerDel Operations

5.8 Ford

5.8.1 Ford Electric Vehicle Positioning

5.8.2 Ford’s Comprehensive Sustainability Strategy

5.8.3 Ford Partnership With Southern California Edison Electric Utility

5.8.4 Ford Partnership with Johnson Controls-Saft for Thin Film Batteries

5.8.5 Ford Partnership with Utility Industry

5.8.6 Building A Business Case

5.8.7 Governments Of Japan, China, Korea, And India Significantly Funding EV Research

5.8.8 Ford Energy Future Vision

5.9 Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru

5.9.1 Subaru of America

5.9.2 Subaru of America Revenue 2008

5.10 General Motors

5.10.1 General Motors Factory In Michigan To Build Battery Packs

5.10.2 GM 2008 Global Sales of 8.35 Million Vehicles

5.10.3 GM Continues Growth in Emerging Markets

5.10.4 GM’s North America Regional Performance

5.10.5 GM Europe

5.10.6 GM Strongly Believes In The Electrification Of The Automobile

5.11 Miles Electric Vehicles

5.11.1 Miles Zero Emissions, Full Electric Car

5.12 Johnson Controls-Saft

5.13 LG Petrochemical

5.13.1 LG Chem

5.14 Mitsubishi

5.14.1 Fleet Testing Of The Zero-Emissions iMiev Electric Vehicle

5.15 NEC / Nissan Low-Cost Lithium-Manganese Batteries

5.15.1 NEC Lamilion Energy

5.16 Panasonic / Sanyo

5.17 Phoenix Motorcars

5.17.1 Phoenix Motorcars Customers: Maui Electric

5.17.2 Phoenix MC All-Electric, Light-Duty Trucks

5.18 REVA

5.18.1 REVA Car Features

5.18.2 REVA Globally Tested Product

5.19 Saft

5.19.1 Saft Battery Technologies

5.19.2 Saft Industrial Battery Group (IBG)

5.19.3 Saft Specialty Battery Group (SBG)

5.19.4 Saft Rechargeable Battery Systems (RBS)

5.19.5 Saft Research and Development

5.19.6 Johnson Controls-Saft United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)

5.20 Samsung

5.21 Shelby SuperCars

5.21.1 Sheffield International Finance Corporation

5.21.2 SSC Monthly Newsletter

5.22 Tesla Motors

5.22.1 Tesla Battery Packs

5.22.2 Tesla Roadster

5.22.3 Tesla Restructuring

5.23 Think

5.23.1 Think Manufacturing Capacity

5.23.2 Think Employees Called Back From Lay-Off

5.23.3 Think Confirms Interim Financing – Private Equity Firm Ener1 Group Is The Lead Investor

5.23.4 Kleiner Perkins And Rockport Capital, Two Leading Us Cleantech Investors Launch Joint Venture With Norwegian Electrical Vehicle Company Think

5.23.5 TH!NK city Crash-Tested And Highway-Certified EV

5.23.6 Think Strategic Partnership With Energy Giant General Electric

5.23.7 Think collaboration with Porsche Consulting

5.24 Toyota

5.25 ZENN Motor Company

5.25.1 Zenn Motor Strategic Energy Storage Partner, Eestor

List of Tables and Figures
Figure ES-1

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure ES-2

REVA Electric Car

Table ES-3

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table ES-3 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure ES-4

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Figure ES-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of

Automotive and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Figure ES-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table ES-7

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-7 (Continued)

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table ES-8

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

Table 1-1

Principal Features Used To Compare Rechargeable Batteries

Figure 1-2

BMW’s Mini E Electric Car Powered By A Rechargeable

Lithium-Ion Battery

Table 1-3

Examples of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Figure 1-4

Typical Structure Of A Thin Film Solid State Battery

Table 1-5

Characteristics Of Battery Cells

Table 2-1

Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

Table 2-2

Energy Advantages Of Thin-Film Batteries

Figure 2-3

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Table 2-4

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Table 2-4 (Continued)

Electric Vehicle Market Driving Forces

Figure 2-5

Worldwide Electric Vehicles

On The Road Market Shares, Units, 2009

Table 2-6

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Shipments Market Shares,

Units On the Road

2009 11

Figure 2-7

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Red

Figure 2-8

REVA Electric Car

Figure 2-9

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Penetration of Automotive

and Light Truck Market Forecasts, Percent,

2009-2015

Table 2-10

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts and

Penetration Analysis, 2009-2015

Figure 2-11

Worldwide Electric Vehicle Retail Forecasts, Dollars,

2009-2015

Table 2-12

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts and

Penetration Analysis, 2009-2015

Table 2-13

Worldwide Electric Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments

and Automotive Market Retail Forecasts, Penetration Analysis,

2009-2015

Table 2-14

Worldwide Automotive and Light Truck Small

Size Electric Vehicle (EV) Market Forecasts, Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-15

Worldwide Small Electric Vehicle (EV) Market

Forecasts, Units, 2009-2015

Table 2-16

Worldwide Small Car and Small Light Truck Electric

Vehicle (EV) Automotive Market Retail Forecasts,

Units and Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-17

Worldwide Sedan Size Automotive and Light Truck

Electric Vehicle (EV) Retail Market Forecasts, Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-18

Worldwide Sedan Size Automotive and Light Truck

Electric Vehicle (EV) Shipments Retail Market Forecasts, Units,

2009-2015

Table 2-19

Worldwide Sedan Size Car and Light Truck Electric

Vehicle (EV) Unit Shipments and Automotive Market

Retail Forecasts, Units and Dollars, 2009-201

Table 2-20

Reasons For Aggressive Forecast For Electric Vehicle Markets

Table 2-21

New Infrastructure, New Driving Modalities Brought By

Electric Vehicles

Table 2-22

Lithium-Ion Battery Market Driving Forces

Table 2-23

Energy Advantages Of Thin-Film Batteries

Figure 2-24

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Table 2-25

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-26

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-27

Worldwide Lithium-Ion and Advanced Lithium-ion

Battery Market Forecasts, Automotive, Power Tools,

Electric Grid, and PC Card, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-28

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Automotive Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-29

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Automotive Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2008

Figure 2-30

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Dollars, 2009-2015

Figure 2-31

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Units, 2009-2015

Figure 2-32

Worldwide Lithium-Ion Thin Film Advanced Battery

Shipments, Market Shares, Units and Dollars, 2009-2015

Table 2-33

Commercialization Challenges Of The Automotive,

Truck, and Bus Thin Film Battery Industry

Table 2-34

Integrated Thin Film Battery Personal Transport Power Systems

Figure 3-1

BMW’S Mini E Electric Car Powered By A Rechargeable

Lithium-Ion Battery

Figure 3-2

BYD E6 Electric Car

Figure 3-3

BYD F3DM Front View

Figure 3-4

BYD F3DM Rear View

Figure 3-5

BYD F3 Moon Roof

Table 3-6

BYD Plug-in Hybrid Powertrain Flexibility

Figure 3-7

BYD E6 Electric Car

Figure 3-8

BYD F6

Figure 3-9

Tesla Motors Roadster

Figure 3-10

Tesla Motors Roadster Torque and Power Graph

Figure 3-11

Model S by Tesla Motors

Figure 3-12

Daimler AG Smart car

Figure 3-13

Daimler Smart Car

Figure 3-14

Daimler Electric Mercedes

Figure 3-15

Prince Albert of Monaco Driving TH!NK city

Figure 3-16

Driving TH!NK city

Figure 3-17

Think Driver Console

Figure 3-18

Think Open

Figure 3-19

Think OX

Figure 3-20

Think City Electric Vehicle

Table 3-21

TH!NK City Specifications

Table 3-22

Think City Standard Equipment:

Table 3-22 (Continued)

Think City Standard Equipment:

Table 3-23

TH!NK City Features

Figure 3-24

Think Lineup of Electric Cars

Figure 3-25

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Front View

Figure 3-26

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Angle View

Figure 3-27

General Motors Chevrolet Volt – Rear View

Figure 3-28

General Motors Chevrolet Volt

Figure 3-29

GM Cadillac Electric Vehicle

Figure 3-30

General Motors EV1 Electric Car

Figure 3-31

XS500 Electric Car by Miles

Figure 3-32

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – In Traffic

Figure 3-33

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Battery Packaging

Figure 3-34

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Red

Figure 3-35

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Gray

Figure 3-36

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Interior

Figure 3-37

i MiEV Electric Car by Mitsubishi – Features

Figure 3-38

Mitsubishi I Miev Electric Car

Figure 3-39

Mitsubishi I Miev Electric Car Interior Engine and

Drive Train Layout

Figure 3-40

Fuji Heavy Industries / Subaru R1e Electric Car

Figure 3-41

Subaru R1e Electric Car Plug Station

Figure 3-42

Subaru G4e Electric Car

Figure 3-43

Hybrid Technologies Electric Supercar

Figure 3-44

Electric Mini by PML

Figure 3-45

Test Electric Car by Nissan

Figure 3-46

REVA Electric Car

Figure 3-47

Zenn Auto

Figure 3-48

Zenn Electric Auto Close-up

Figure 3-49

Zenn Auto Parked in Street

Figure 3-50

Zenn Electric Auto – Gray with Sun Roof

Figure 3-51

Commuter Cars Tango Electric Car

Figure 3-52

Commuter Cars Tango in Washington DC

Figure 3-53

Eliica Electric Car

Figure 3-54

Wrightspeed X1 Electric Car

Figure 3-55

Saturn SP1 Electric Car Conversion

Figure 3-56

Toyota Hybrid Prius

Figure 3-57

Toyota FT-EV Battery Electric Vehicle

Figure 3-58

Toyota Electric Car

Table 3-59

Chrysler ENVI Electric Minivan Features

Figure 3-60

Interior of The Concept Car, The Chrysler 200C EV

Table 3-61

Chrysler Electric Vehicle Positioning

Table 3-62

Chrysler Electric Vehicle EV

Figure 3-63

Chrysler Electric Vehicles

Figure 3-64

Dodge Circuit EV

Table 3-65

Dodge Circuit EV Features

Figure 3-66

Chrysler Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV

Figure 3-67

Jeep® Wrangler Unlimited EV Features

Figure 3-68

Phoenix Motorcars SUT Truck

Figure 3-69

Phoenix Motorcars SUV Vehicle

Figure 3-70

Shelby Supercars

Figure 3-71

Shelby Supercars – Doors Raised

Figure 3-72

Aptera Pre-Production Model 2e

Figure 3-73

Aptera 2e Pre-Production Models

Figure 3-74

Aperta Three Wheel Vehicle

Figure 3-75

Aperta Three Wheel Vehicle – Rear View

Figure 4-1

Altairnano Battery Performance:

Figure 4-2

EFOY Pro Fuel Cell Kit For Electric Vehicles

Figure 4-3

Electrica City Car – Red

Figure 4-4

Electrica City Car – Yellow

Figure 4-5

Electrica City Car – Open

Figure 4-6

Electrica City Car – Dashboard

Figure 4-7

Smart Fuel Cells (SFC) Supply The StartLab Open With Power

Table 4-8

Challenges in Lithium-ion Battery Design

Table 4-9

Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Source: ITN.

Table 4-10

Thin Film Battery Unique Properties

Table 4-11

Comparison of battery performances

Table 4-12

Comparison Of Battery Performances

Table 4-13

Thin Films For Advanced Batteries

Table 4-14

Thin Film Batteries Technology

Table 4-15

Thin Film Battery / Lithium Air Batteries Applications

Figure 4-16

Polymer Film Substrate Thin Flexible Battery Profiles

Figure 4-17

Design Alternatives of Thin Film Rechargable Batteries

Table 5-1

A123 Systems Batteries Benefits

Table 5-2

A123 Systems C